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Managing Diabetes: Causes, Complications, Prevention and Control

Diabetes is an endocrine disorder that affects the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels. It is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood, usually due to lack of insulin or the body not effectively utilizing the insulin it produces.
There are three main types of diabetes – type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

Causes of Diabetes

The cause of type 1 diabetes is not yet understood. It is thought to be linked to genetics, although it is not clear why some people develop the condition and others do not. Type 1 diabetes typically develops in childhood and adolescence.

Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, has a clear underlying cause – lifestyle factors such as obesity, an unhealthy diet, and lack of physical activity all increase a person’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy, is caused by hormonal changes in the body.

Complications of Diabetes

Diabetes can lead to a variety of serious health complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, nerve damage, and eye problems. Diabetes can also increase the risk of certain types of cancers, such as colon cancer and pancreatic cancer. People with diabetes are also more at risk of developing depression and anxiety.

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Stages of Diabetes

There are three main stages of diabetes:

  • Pre-diabetes: At this stage, the body is unable to effectively use the insulin it produces, resulting in higher levels of blood sugar. It is important to make lifestyle changes and effective management to prevent progression to type 2 diabetes.
  • Type 1 diabetes: At this stage, the body cannot produce any insulin and requires daily insulin injections to survive.
  • Type 2 diabetes: At this stage, the body is not responding effectively to the insulin it produces, resulting in the need to take medication, as well as make lifestyle changes, and ensure adequate management to prevent further complications.

Prevention & Control of Diabetes

To prevent or delay the onset of diabetes, it is important to make lifestyle changes to maintain a healthy weight, such as regularly exercising, eating a healthy diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables, limiting sugary foods and drinks, and avoiding smoking.
Regular check-ups with your doctor can help identify signs of pre-diabetes, so you can take action to manage and prevent it from progressing to type 2 diabetes. Taking prescribed medication as directed and monitoring blood glucose levels regularly can help to manage, control diabetes and prevent further complications.

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